Gerund/Infinitive Forms

Taken from http ://www.englishpage.com/gerunds/part_3.htm

In addition to simple gerund and infinitive forms, there are progressive gerund and infinitive forms, passive gerund and infinitive forms and perfect gerund and infinitive forms as well as combinations of these forms. Progressive forms are used to emphasize that an action is taking place now. Passive forms are used to emphasize that the subject of the sentence is being acted upon. Perfect gerund and infinitive forms are used to emphasize completion in both the past and the future. Study the examples below to help understand these concepts. To learn more about progressiveness, the passive voice and the perfect aspect, complete the Englishpage.com Verb Tense Tutorial.

GERUND FORMS INFINITIVE FORMS
SIMPLE The teacher enjoys teaching. The teacher wants to teach.
PROGRESSIVE Mr. Smith is really enjoying teaching his class.
Looks the same as simple form above.
Mr. Smith would like to be teaching his class.
PASSIVE The students enjoy being taught. The students want to be taught.
PERFECT The retired teacher recalled having taught. The teacher was expecting to have taught that already.
PASSIVE + PROGRESSIVE The students are enjoying being taught by such an exciting new teacher.
Looks the same as the passive form above.
The students would like to be being taught by Mr Smith.
PASSIVE + PERFECT The older students recalled having been taught that already. The students were expecting to have been taught that by now.
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Učenici u radionici Britanskog Saveta:Urbani život gradova Velike Britanije

Ovako nam je bilo na radionici Britanskog saveta Urbani život gradova Velike Britanije na Sajmu knjiga. Tema je bila Grad i kreativnost, a učenici II razreda su malo izašli iz škole da pričaju engleski, nauče nešto novo, crtaju i budu kreativni. Kažu da su se lepo zabavili. Uvek je dobro malo“ izaći iz kutije“…IMG_3649 IMG_3658 IMG_3663 IMG_3664 IMG_3667

Takmičenje

Ovako je bilo prošle godine na republičkom takmičenju, a vi vidite da li umete da ga uradite:

GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY TEST

 

I  Circle the letter in front of the correct answer  (A, B, C or D):

(Do not write the words on the lines)

  1. I’ve got some good news about the job I applied for last month. They’re going to _________  so, I should start working next week!

A  put me up                  C  take up with me

B  take me on                 D  keep me up

  1. Come over and see us when our guests ________. We ‘ll be able to discuss the matter undisturbed.

A  leave                       C  had left

B  are left                    D  have left

  1. I found myself in an unknown city so, I _________ from place to place without any sense of direction.

A  wandered                C  strode

B  wondered                D  strutted

  1. I prefer __________.

A  to ride than walking             C  riding than walking

B  riding than to walk               D  riding to walking

  1.  I tried to make some suggestions at the meeting, but David kept __________, so I could’t explain everything I wanted.

A  nodding off               C  talking me down

B  calling on me            D  bringing me round

  1. Jane’s decision about helping others seems to be serious. So, we hope it’s not going to be just another _________.

A  forgive and forget                  C   taste of her own medicine

B  flash in the pan                       D  feather in the cap

(max. 6 points: ________)

 

II Complete the gaps with the correct article or a preposition, where needed:

  (Where no word is needed put   /  on the line)

There were big palms and (1)______ green benches (2)______ the public garden. In the good weather there was always (3)______ artist with his easel. Artists liked the way (4)______ palms grew and the bright colours (5)______ the hotels facing the gardens and the sea.

(taken from: „Cat in the Rain“, Ernest Hemingway)

(max. 5 points: ________)

III Fill in the blanks with the correct  form of the words in the box:

(Use the offered words/expressions only once; one of them is extra.)

                      crevice,           blow,          drop,        pick one’s way,         root,century,           build up,           try,           fight,       branch,       lichen,

I got out of the car and (1)____________ through the underbrush to the pines. They were growing in a shallow dip between bare ribs of granite; around them tough wiry blueberry bushes (2)____________ with the grasses and the mosses and the (3)____________, all of them struggling for foot-room. In some places there is so little topsoil you wouldn’t think it was worth the effort of (4)____________ to grow, but they manage. They thrive, in fact. They find every crack, every (5)____________, every crumb of soil, and send out their tough little (6)____________ and dig in, and cling on, and hoard every (7)____________ leaf, every twig, every grain of sand or dust that’s (8)____________ their way, and gradually, gradually (9)____________ enough soil around themselves to support their offspring. And so it goes on, down the (10)____________.

(taken from: „Crow Lake“, Mary Lawson)                                                      (max. 10 points: ________)

IV  Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the words given in brackets:

  1. He can run for miles. His energy seems (1)________________. (exhaust)
  2. Many (2)______________ (passer-by) were on the (3)______________ (wharf).
  3. In a debate, it is always good to have someone whose arguments are (4)_______________. (provoke)

(max. 4 points: ________)

 

V Finish each of the following sentences so that the meaning remains the same:

 

  1. Amy decided to lend David some money only when he agreed to pay her back the following week.

Only when _______________________________________________________.

  1. If we catch the early train, we can get there by 10 o’clock.

I suggested ______________________________________________________.

  1. It was admitted that the information had been obtained from unreliable sources.

The information __________________________________________________.

  1. It’s possible that they spoke about their fear of flooding waters.

They may _______________________________________________________.

  1. Alison little realized that the new gardening project was very expensive.

Little ___________________________________________________________.

(max. 5 points: ________)

KEY

Grammar and Vocabulary Test

I 1. B 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. C 6. B

II (1) / (2) in (3) an (4) the (5) of

III (1) picked my way (2) fought (3) lichens (4) trying (5) crevice
(6) roots (7) dropped (8) blown (9) build up (10) centuries

IV (1) inexhaustible (2) passers-by (3) wharves (4) provocative

V 1. Only when David/he agreed to pay Amy/her back the following week did she/Amy decide to lend him/David some money.

2. I suggested that if we caught the early train, we would be able to get there by 10 o’clock. OR
I suggested that if we were to catch the early train, we would be able to get there by 10 o’clock. OR
I suggested catching the early train so that we would be able to get there by 10 o’clock.

3. The information was admitted to have been obtained from unreliable sources.

4. They may have spoken about their fear of flooding waters.

5. Little did Alison/she realize that the new gardening project was very expensive.

Priprema za maturski ispit : kratki saveti

  • Za što bolji prevod na ispitu preporučuje se stalno čitanje na srpskom jeziku i obnavljanje celokupne gramatike.
  • Obično su na ispitu četiri vrste tekstova: književni (jedan ili dva – fiction), novinski članak, i tekst u vezi sa istorijom, geografijom, medicinom, i td., biografija…(non-fiction).
  • Na ispitu je dozvoljena upotreba rečnika. Potrebno je nabaviti veliki rečnik (sa što većim brojem reči) ,recimo englesko-srpski: Simić, Ristić-pogodni za prevod književnih tekstova i po mogućstvu englesko-engleski rečnik, recimo.: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary ili slični. Svaki učenik može koristiti samo svoj(e) rečnik(e).
  • Ispit traje četiri školska časa t.j. tri sata. To nije tako puno vremena kao što izgleda.
  • Prvo se pročitaju dobro sva četiri teksta. Odaberite onaj koji vam najviše odgovara-oprez- onaj koji ima puno nepoznatih reči ne mora biti i najteži. Neki tekstovi nemaju puno nepoznatih reči, ali su teži zbog konstrukcija, stila ili su teži za razumevanje i prevod.
  • Dati izabrani tekstovi uvek predstavljaju jednu celinu.Razumevanje teksta: Počinjete tako što se trudite da razumete ceo tekst-ko, s kim, kada, kako. Onda krećete da prevodite. Prvo se piše koncept. Vadite reči iz rečnika, ali imajući u vidu kontekst: ne prevodite nikad reč po reč, već kao celinu (rečenica, ili čak pasus)- prevođenje u kontekstu:za jednu reč možete naći veliki broj značenja na srpskom, birate je po kontekstu, stilu. Srpski jezik je veoma važan za ovaj ispit (skoro podjednako).
  • Prevođenje: Što približnije originalu, a u duhu srpskog jezika!
  • Obavezno paziti na gramatiku-rečenice moraju biti gramatički tačne u prevodu (vrste rečenica, skraćivanja participom, infinitivi, vremena, slaganje vremena, kondicionali,konjuktiv, pasivi, član i determinatori,predlozi,  frazalni glagoli  i slično.)
  • Kad završite prevod-koncept, proverite sve- pisanje, stil, gramatiku. Onda se odmaknete od zadatka pa ga pročitate kao čitalac- da li sve deluje razumljivo, smisleno i logično.
  • Tek onda krenete da sa koncepta prepisujete na papir koji predajete. Ne možete davati više mogućnosti za prevod (u zagradi). Proverite dobro da li ste sve prepisali da ne biste nešto izostavili.

Kriterijumi za ocenjivanje prevoda na maturskom ispitu: M-meaning, G-grammar, W-word, S-Serbian. Značenje se ne sme promašiti (pasusa, rečenice, reči), gramatička greška takođe umanjuje ocenu, izbor reči i izraza -stil, paziti da budu odgovarajuće, a srpski jezik-gramatika mora takođe biti tačna. Svi se ovi delovi ocenjuju, i mogu nositi različite ocene u zavisnosti od težine greške u svakom od ovih delova. Lepota prevoda svakako povećava ocenu.

Podrazumeva se da ste za ove četiri godine do mature dobili jedno sveobuhvatno znanje iz engleskog jezika koje je dovoljno da uz obnavljanje, temeljnost i pažljivost dovede do zadovoljavajućih rezultata!

GOOD LUCK!

priprema za maturski ispit: primeri tekstova

УПУТСТВО ЗА ПОЛАГАЊЕ МАТУРСКОГ ИСПИТА ИЗ СТРАНОГ ЈЕЗИКА

Матурски испит се састоји од превода једног од понуђена четири текста са страног језика на српски језик. Превод се ради ћирилицом, писаним словима, на левој страни (шлајфни) папира.

На врху странице, у горњем десном углу ученик исписује своје име, разред и одељење.

Испод тога, целом дужином реда пише наслов:

Писмени задатак из (енглеског / француског / руског / немачког)  језика на матурском испиту, рађен . јуна 201…. године

Наслов текста није потребно наводити.

Кад заврши рад, ученик потписује текст превода (онако како се иначе потписује) и предаје га дежурном наставнику, који уписује време када је рад предат.

Ученик је дужан да преда свој рад и папир на коме се налазе текстови за превод. Концепт даје наставнику на увид и може да га задржи.

Актив за стране и класичне језике

ПРИМЕР  ЈЕДНОГ МАТУРСКОГ ИСПИТА

It was Harold who had made it possible. A clever boy, and a wonderful son… When it had become quite clear that she could no longer afford to keep the house up, that it would have to be sold, it was Harold who had persuaded his firm to buy it. Their interest, he had told her, lay not in the house, but in the site – as would any buyer’s. The house itself was almost without value now, but the position was convenient. As a condition of sale, four rooms on the south side had been converted into a flat which was to be hers for life. The rest of the house had become a hostel housing some twenty young people who worked in the laboratiories and offices which now stood on the north side, on the site of the stables and part of the paddock. One day, she knew, the old house would come down, she had seen the plans, but for the present, for her time, both it and the garden to the south and west could remain unspoilt. Harold had assured her that they would not be required for fifteen or twenty years yet – much longer than she would know the need of them…

John Wyndham,  Stitch in time

————————————————————————————————————————–

Then stay in Istanbul,’ said Ipek.

            Ka looked at her carefully. ’Is Istanbul where you want to live?’ he asked in a whisper. His greatest wish just then was for Ipek to ask something of him.

            Ipek sensed this, too. ’I don’t want anything.’ she said.

            Ka knew he was rushing. But something told him he wasn’t going to be in Kars much longer, that soon he would be unable to breathe here – so he had to rush, as if his life depended on it. For a few moments they listened to snatches of a distant conversation; then a horse and carriage passed under the window and they listened to the wheels rolling over the snow. Ipek was standing in the doorway slowly and meticulously removing the hair that had collected in the brush in her hand.

            ’Life here is so poor and hopeless that people, even people like you, forget what it’s like to want something,’ said Ka. ’One cannot think of life here, only death… Are you coming with me?’ Ipek didn’t answer. ’If you’re going to say no, then don’t answer me at all,’ added Ka.

            ’I don’t know,’ said Ipek, her eyes on the brush. ’They’re waiting for us in the other room.’

Orhan Pamuk,  Snow; translated by Maureen Freely)

————————————————————————————————————————–

            The main attraction is Mangapu Cave, better known as the Lost World. The cave was first discovered in 1906, when two railway surveyors almost fell into it through a sinkhole. They described the sunlit, ferny gully 100m below as “a fairy-land without the fairies, a lost world“. The name stuck and 100 years later it has become the setting for one of the top adventure daytrips in a country famous for them: an exhilarating “wild caving“ experience.

Wild caving involves exploring caves without the aid of formed pathways and fixed lighting found in so-called “show caves“. An experienced guide leads the way and participants are supplied with wetsuits, helmets, head torches, climbing harnesses and gumboots. Wild caving also demands a reasonable level of fitness, agility and endurance.

The trip starts with a 10-minute drive from Waitomo over rolling hills and through farm gates to the shed that is the base for the day’s expedition. Then it’s a short walk to a large, gaping hole.

It takes about half an hour to reach the bottom, so there’s plenty of time to enjoy the view of ferns wallpapering the cave walls and to notice a sound that begins as a whisper and grows into a rushing roar close to the cave floor. Like many of Waitomo’s caves, the Lost World has a river running through it.

Luise Southerden,  New Zealand

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………                                 

I found that my landlord had got a letter from the Count, directing him to secure the best place on the coach for me; but on making inquiries as to details he seemed somewhat reticent, and pretended that he could not understand my German. This could not be true, because up to then he had understood it perfectly; at least, he answered my question exactly as if he did.  He and his wife, the old lady who had received me, looked at each other in a frightened sort of way. He mumbled out that the money had been sent in a letter, and that was all he knew. When I asked him if he knew Count Dracula, and could tell me anything of his castle, both he and his wife crossed themselves, and, saying that they knew nothing at all, simply refused to speak further. It was so near the time of starting that I had no time to ask anyone else, for it was all very mysterious and not by any means comforting.

Just before I was leaving, the old lady came up to my room and said in a very hysterical way: –

‘Must you go?’ She was in such an excited state that she seemed to have lost her grip of what German she knew, and mixed it all up with some other language which I did not know at all.

Abraham (Bram) Stoker, Dracula